Harappan Culture Pdf
Worship of fire is proved by the discovery of fire altars at Lothal, Kalibangan and Harappa. For sea trade, big boats were used. The Harappan Civilization, c.
Revealing the ways in which our past is constructed, it explains fundamental concepts, and illuminates contemporary debates, discoveries, and research. Monogamy was widely accepted although polygamy was not unknown, and even polyandry is mentioned in later writings.
Essentially a city culture, Harappan life was supported by extensive agricultural production and by commerce, which included trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia modern Iraq. Permanent settlements and agriculture led to trade and other occupational differentiation. Brick-laying was an important craft at that time. Cause of Decline of Indus Civilization. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million.
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Drainage system in Indus Civilization towns was very impressive. Scholars have put forward number of theories to explain the decline and the final collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization. Bronze smiths manufactured not only images and utensils but also various tools and weapons such as axes, saws, knifes and spears.
Overview of Harappan Culture in India
Providing a window into the world primary sources, it incorporates a large volume of archaeological data, along with literary, epigraphic, and numismatic evidence. The people made tools and weapons from copper and bronze but not iron.
Further they believed in ghosts and evil forces and used amulets as protection against them. Images from Texts and Archaeology, c.
Emerging Regional Configurations, c. There is sufficient evidence for the prevalence of phallic worship i. The Harappan Civilization belongs to the Bronze Age. These sacred texts offer guidance in piecing together Aryan beliefs and activities.
Hereby we have provided you key points about Indus Valley Civilzation which are important from examination point of view. Indus people also worshipped Gods in the form of trees peepal etc. More plausible explanations are recurrent floods caused by tectonic earth movement, soil salinity, and desertification.
Interaction and Innovation, c. However, humped bulls were favoured. Dealing with prehistory and protohistory of the subcontinent in considerable detail, the narrative of the historical period breaks away from conventional text-based history writing.
The birth of a son was welcome because he could later tend the herds, bring honor in battle, offer sacrifices to the gods, and inherit property and pass on the family name. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.
The Harappan people had the knowledge of boat-making, seal-making and terracotta manufacturing. Harappan people had trade relations within India, as well as with countries outside India. By far, fastest pdf reader the most exquisite and most obscure Harappan artifacts unearthed to date are steatite seals found in abundance at Mohenjo-Daro. Excavations at these sites and later archaeological digs at about seventy other locations in India and Pakistan provide a composite picture of what is now generally known as Harappan culture B.
As revealed by Radio-Carbon this civilization thrived during B. They also have inscriptions generally thought to be in the Harappan script, which has eluded scholarly attempts at deciphering it. The language of Harappan people is unknown as its script has not been deciphered till date.
The Harappan civilization
The basic unit of Aryan society was the extended and patriarchal family. Chief female deity was the Mother Goddess, who has been depicted in various forms. Jewellery of gold, silver and precious stones was also made. As lands along the Ganga or Ganges were cleared, the river became a trade route, the numerous settlements on its banks acting as markets. Debate abounds as to whether the script represents numbers or an alphabet, and, if an alphabet, whether it is proto-Dravidian or proto-Sanskrit.
Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. Basic Approach Developed as a comprehensive introductory work for scholars and students of ancient and early medieval Indian history, this books provides the most exhaustive overview of the subject. Her research papers have been published in various national and international journals. Harappan people used many tools and implements of stone, but they were very well acquainted with the manufacture and use of bronze, which was made by mixing tin and copper. This work is a revealing study of the enigmatic Indus civilization and how a rich repertoire of archaeological tools is being used to probe its puzzles.
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